Focus and Scope

Health Renaissance is a scientific, biomedical publication of B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. The main mission of the journal is to act as a means of for improving the quality of health care and medical education particularly in the context of developing countries with limited resources. It aims to achieve the above mission by providing a standard platform to the physicians, scientists, administrators and educators all over the world in various fields of health profession and medical education for sharing their experiences and views, and for disseminating the results of scientific researches related to these fields. HEALTH RENAISSANCE would be of interest to all those who are involved in patient care, biomedical research, education of health professionals and administration of health services and community at large. The journal accepts original articles, review articles, case reports, brief communications and letters to the editor. The journal agrees to use the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals". All materials submitted to this Journal should conform to these requirements. Detailed guidelines for submitting a manuscript to the journal have been given at the end of this issue. Authors are requested to follow these guidelines carefully while preparing the manuscript, for quicker acceptance and publication of the same in the journal.

Publication Frequency

Three issues of the journal are published in a calendar year. The journal can be subscribed by paying a subscription fee through an account payee demand draft in favour of "Health Renaissance", payable at Kathmandu, Nepal and addressed to the Editor at his editorial office address. Annual subscription rates are: Institute within Nepal: Rs. 1500, other SAARC countries: US $ 40 or equivalent, rest of the countries: US $ 70. Personal subscription rates: Nepal Rs. 750, other SAARC countries: US $ 20 or equivalent may be added. Twenty reprints shall be sent free of cost to the corresponding author: For additional reprints, extra payment would be required.

While all efforts have been made by the editors and publisher to ensure that no inaccuracies or misleading information / opinions or statements appear in the articles or in advertisements being published in this journal; it is, however, clarified that all such information, statements or opinions appearing in this journal are those of contributors and / or of advertisers, and they themselves are solely responsible for the correctness of the same. The opinions expressed or statements made herein may not necessarily be the opinions and views of the editorial board of the journal or those of B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal. B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal or the editors take no responsibility or liability, whatsoever, for the consequences of any form arising out of any of the articles / advertisements included in this journal.

While all efforts are made for ensuring the accuracy of schedules or protocols of various modalities of treatment that appear in this journal, the readers are, however, advised to re-verify and get familiar with them, especially for newer or unfamiliar drugs / protocols / procedures etc. before starting practising them.

B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal, assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of the editorial contained in this journal, and such editorial materials does not represent the official policy or recommendations of the university. The appearance of advertisements in this journal does not constitute a guarantee or endorsement by the editorial board of B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences of quality or value of any advertised product or service, or the claims made for them by advertisers.

Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

Editorial Board

Chief Editor
Balkrishna Bhattarai
Professor of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, BPKIHS

Joint Editor
Poonam Lavaju
Additional Professor of Opthalmology, BPKIHS

Web Editor
Pramendra Prasad Gupta
Assistant Professor of General Practice and Emergency Medicine, BPKIHS

Bishnu Hari Paudel,
Professor of Clinical Physiology, BPKIHS

Birendra Pd Sah,
Professor of Anesthesiology, BPKIHS

Madhab Lamsal,
Professor of Biochemistry, BPKIHS

Rajendra Gurung,
Additional Professor of Microbiology, BPKIHS

Pashupati Chaudhary,
Additional Professor of Orthopaedics, BPKIHS

Jyotsna Rimal,
Associate Professor of Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, BPKIHS

Robin Maskey,
Associate Professor of Internal Medicine, BPKIHS

Achala Thakur,
Associate Professor of Obstretics and Gynaecology, BPKIHS

Akshaya Prasad Gautam,
Assistant Professor of Health Professions Educations, BPKIHS

Statistical Consultants

S R Niraula,
Associate Professor of Biostatistics, BPKIHS

D D Baral,
Assistant Professor of Biostatistics, BPKIHS

Advisory Board
Professor C S Agrawal, Nepal
Professor Prahlad Karki, Nepal
Professor Rupa Rajbhandari Singh, Nepal
Professor Paras Kumar Pokharel, Nepal
Professor Badri Prasad Badhu, Nepal
Professor Sudha Agrawal, Nepal
Professor M P Upadhaya, Nepal
Professor Mukesh Tripathi, India
Dr P T Jayawickramarajah, Sri Lanka
Professor Ramesh Kanta Adhikari, Nepal
Professor O P Kalra, India
Professor Anurag Shrivastava, India
Professor K K Verma, India
Professor K K Deepak, India
Professor R M Pandey, India


© Copyright: B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. No part of this journal can be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any manner, in any form, or for any purpose, without a prior written approval of the editorial board.