Evaluation of lead and cadmium levels in lipsticks sold in Kathmandu, Nepal, and their potential health risk assessment

Authors

  • Salina Aryal Department of Chemistry, Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1137-799X
  • Narayan Bashyal Department of Chemistry, Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7764-7644
  • Surendra Kumar Gautam Department of Chemistry, Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2301-263X
  • Megh Raj Pokhrel Central Department of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu 44618, Nepal
  • Bhoj Raj Poudel Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v9i3.38834

Keywords:

Lipstick, Lead, Cadmium, health risks

Abstract

The study aimed to assess the levels of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in lipsticks and theirs associated health hazards to consumers. 13 lipsticks and 7 lipglosses were selected randomly from various shopping centers in Kathmandu, Nepal. The lipstick sample was chemically digested and analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The concentration range of Pb and Cd in lipsticks was from 0.020.009 to 30.970.014 mg kg-1 and 0.010.014 to 0.920.009 mg kg-1 respectively. The hazard quotient for Pb was found greater than 1 in 15 samples showing detrimental carcinogenic health risk through lipstick consumption. So, these lipstick brands are prone to hamper human health. Accordingly, regular monitoring of the lipsticks before importing them is highly recommended.

Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(3): 213-219.

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Published

2021-09-29

How to Cite

Aryal, S. ., Bashyal, N. ., Gautam, S. K. ., Pokhrel, M. R. ., & Poudel, B. R. (2021). Evaluation of lead and cadmium levels in lipsticks sold in Kathmandu, Nepal, and their potential health risk assessment. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, 9(3), 213–219. https://doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v9i3.38834

Issue

Section

Research Articles: Physical Sciences