Urban Heat Island in Kathmandu, Nepal: Evaluating Relationship between NDVI and LST from 2000 to 2018
Keywords:Urban Heat Island, Urbanization, Land Cover Change, Nepal, Kathmandu
The term “urban heat island” (UHI) describes increased surface and atmospheric temperatures in an urban core relative to surrounding non-urbanized areas. Although the phenomenon has been studied to a great extent throughout the world, it is less understood for Kathmandu, Nepal. This study used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) 8-day product (MOD11A2) to evaluate land surface temperatures (LSTs), the MODIS-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day product (MOD13Q1) to quantify land surface characteristics, and the MODIS annual land cover classification product (MCD12Q1) to identify major land cover classes. We evaluated the spatial correlation between significant changes in LSTs and NDVI between 2000–2018. Overall, urban (permanently developed areas) LSTs were consistently greater than non-urban (forests and dynamic agriculture lands) LSTs; however, the rate of increase in temperature was higher outside the central Kathmandu developed urban area. Furthermore, significant changes in NDVI values over time were more widespread and not always spatially coincident with significant changes in LST values, particularly for forested land areas. These results provide insight into systematic planning of open and green areas, construction of new infrastructure in peripheral areas, and highlight the challenges in applying traditional UHI conceptual models to rapidly developing urban areas such as Kathmandu, Nepal.
How to Cite
The author(s) acknowledge that the manuscript submitted is his/her/their own original work; all authors participated in the work in a substantive way and are prepared to take public responsibility for the work; all authors have seen and approved the manuscript as submitted; the manuscript has not been published and is not being submitted or considered for publication elsewhere; the text, illustrations, and any other materials included in the manuscript do not infringe(plagiarism) upon any existing copyright or other rights of anyone.
Notwithstanding the above, the Contributor(s) or, if applicable the Contributor’s Employer, retain(s) all proprietary rights other than copyright, such as Patent rights; to use, free of charge, all parts of this article for the author’s future works in books, lectures, classroom teaching or oral presentations; the right to reproduce the article for their own purposes provided the copies are not offered for sale.
The copyright to the contribution identified is transferred to IJE.