Role of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-gamma and its Ligands in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), a nuclear receptor, is highly expressed in the colonic epithelium in contrast to its impaired expression in the patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Several natural and synthetic ligands of PPAR-γ with some effects in the colon have been identified. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the role of PPAR-γ and its ligands in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Review of article was done using a PubMed search. Animal model studies have revealed that PPAR-γ is the key receptor for 5-aminosalicylic acid that mediates its main effects in the colon. Moreover, the clinical trials have shown that the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone is effective in the treatment of mild to moderately active UC. PPAR-γ gene therapy, used as an adjunct intervention, may be effective in suppressing inflammation in colitis. Some commensal bacteria and natural ligands present in food may induce PPAR-γ expression and activation in the colon which suggest the possibility of associating a natural regulator and a synthetic ligand of PPAR-γ as drug therapy for IBD patients. Further studies are required for the development of unique and effective therapies with PPAR-γ agonists in IBD patients.
Journal of Advances in Internal Medicine. 2012; 1(1): 33-38