Mobile Pastoralism in Crisis: Challenges, Conflicts and Status of Pasture Tenure in Nepal Mountains


  • Mani Ram Banjade ForestAction Nepal
  • Naya Sharma Paudel ForestAction Nepal


pastoralism, community forestry, mountain


High altitude areas in general and related mobile pastoralism--transhumance herding system--in particular have been neglected by the policies and actors of Nepal. The blanket policy approach has almost ignored the socio-cultural, economic and ecological aspects of uniquely positioned nexus between the high hill forest ecosystem and the livelihoods of people dependent on them. However, concerns are being raised over the threat to the traditional occupation of the high altitude people. National policy processes have not yet responded to it adequately and in time. By reviewing the existing policies and practices of government and other actors at different levels from the tenure perspective and by collecting primary data from the field using different participatory tools and techniques, the paper explores the issues, challenges and opportunities of mountain pastoralism with focus on the transhumant herding system. The research shows that the shrinking grazing land for mobile pastoralists, newly emerging market trends, increased awareness of high altitude people about education and increasing options for employment outside the area have posed threats to the traditional occupation.

Keywords: pastoralism, community forestry, mountain.  

Full text is available at the ForestAction website  

Journal of Forest and Livelihood 7(1) December 2008 pp.49-57


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How to Cite

Banjade, M. R., & Paudel, N. S. (2009). Mobile Pastoralism in Crisis: Challenges, Conflicts and Status of Pasture Tenure in Nepal Mountains. Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 7(1), 49–57. Retrieved from