How are Forest Policy Decisions Made in Nepal?


  • Hemant Ojha ForestAction and Environmental Resource Institute
  • Netra Timsina ForestAction Nepal
  • Dilraj Khanal FECOFUN


deliberation, environment, forestry, policy, governance


Taking a deliberative democracy perspective, we analyze the case of forest governance in Nepal with a view to understanding the extent and processes of citizen-state deliberations in forest policy making in relation to Nepal's specific historical and social contexts. We analyze 15 policy decisions which range from parliament-endorsed laws to executive decisions of the government that were made over the period 1998-2004. Our findings indicate that despite the functioning of a multiparty political system, most forest policy decisions made during the studied period involved limited democratic deliberation. Two reasons for this are identified as: a) continued dominance of the role of forest science and state forestry administration in forest policy making; and b) weak links between civil society and elected political leaders in the legislature and the government. Finally, we draw lessons for approaches to analyzing environmental governance.

Key words: deliberation, environment, forestry, policy, governance  

Full text is available at the ForestAction website

Journal of Forest and Livelihood 6(1) February 2007 pp.1-17


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How to Cite

Ojha, H., Timsina, N., & Khanal, D. (2009). How are Forest Policy Decisions Made in Nepal?. Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 6(1), 1–17. Retrieved from