Geotechnical and Structural Aspect of 2015 Gorkha Nepal Earthquake and Lesson Learnt
An earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.8 struck the central Nepal at 11:56 am on April 25, 2015. More than 9,000 people were killed and thousands of residential buildings, and hundreds other structures were also destroyed. An aftershock of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.3 hit northeast of Kathmandu on May 12 after 17 days of main shock which caused additional damages. Immediately after the earthquake, authors undertook a field investigation and visited the affected areas. Strong motion records from both earthquakes and their impacts on structures as well as geotechnical issues are presented in this paper. Most of the structures in Nepal are made of adobe, unreinforced masonry, and reinforced concrete. Failure mechanisms of those buildings are briefly explained in this paper. Geotechnical aspects such as soil liquefaction, slope failures, settlement and lateral spreading, and site amplification effects that considerably influenced the damage patterns at many areas are briefly discussed as well. The lessons learnt from this earthquake are also summarized in this paper.
Journal of the Institute of Engineering, 2017, 13(1): 20-36