Childhood Tuberculosis and its Relation with Nutrition: A five Year Retrospective Study
Keywords:anemia, malnutrition, Nepal, pulmonary, tuberculosis
Introduction: Tuberculosis is the sixth leading cause of mortality in Nepal. Childhood tuberculosis consisted 5.54% of newly registered 32,056 cases in 2016-17. Malnutrition is a predictor of tuberculosis and is associated with poorer outcomes. This study evaluates the clinico-epidemiologic profile of childhood tuberculosis and its relation to nutritional status.
Methods: This was a retrospective review of 60 cases of tuberculosis admitted over a period of five years. Details regarding demographics, anthropometry, symptomatology and examination findings were retrieved. Diagnosis was categorized as pulmonary, extra-pulmonary and disseminated tuberculosis. Findings of various investigations were noted. Nutritional status of the patients was assessed using the WHO standard charts. Association of malnutrition and anemia with types and severity of tuberculosis was assessed.
Results: A total of 60 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 7.9 years (SD = 4.6). The commonest presenting symptom was fever (83.3%) followed by decreased appetite (33.3%) and weight loss (26.7%). Cough was the predominant symptom in pulmonary tuberculosis (45%). Only eight cases were bacteriologically confirmed. Underweight, wasting and stunting were observed in 68.4%, 63.3% and 53.3% of cases respectively. Wasting was significantly associated with severe forms of tuberculosis (p = 0.03). Anemia was present in 89.5% of under five children (p = 0.02).
Conclusion: Malnutrition often co-exists in a significant proportion of children with tuberculosis. Diagnosis in resource limited settings heavily relies on clinical suspicion and supporting investigations. Anemia is significantly associated with childhood TB, especially under five children.
How to Cite
LicenseThe Journal of Lumbini Medical College (JLMC) publishes open access articles under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution(CC BY) License which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
JLMC requires an exclusive licence allowing to publish the article in print and online.
The corresponding author should read and agree to the following statement before submission of the manuscript for publication,
In submitting an article to Journal of Lumbini Medical College (JLMC) I certify that:
- I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
- I warrant, on behalf of myself and my co-authors, that:
- the article is original, has not been formally published in any other peer-reviewed journal, is not under consideration by any other journal and does not infringe any existing copyright or any other third party rights;
- I am/we are the sole author(s) of the article and have full authority to enter into this agreement and in granting rights to JLMC are not in breach of any other obligation;
- the article contains nothing that is unlawful, libellous, or which would, if published, constitute a breach of contract or of confidence or of commitment given to secrecy;
- I/we have taken due care to ensure the integrity of the article. To my/our - and currently accepted scientific - knowledge all statements contained in it purporting to be facts are true and any formula or instruction contained in the article will not, if followed accurately, cause any injury, illness or damage to the user.
Please visit Creative Commons web page for details of the terms.