A review on important maize diseases and their management in Nepal
Keywords:Maize, disease, control/management
In Nepal, maize ranks second after rice both in area and production. In recent years, maize area and production has shown a steady increase, but productivity has been low (2.46 t/ha). The major maize producing regions in Nepal are mid hill (72.85%), terai (17.36%) and high hill (9.79%) respectively. A literature review was carried out to explore major maize diseases and their management in Nepal. The omnipresent incidence of diseases at the pre harvest stage has been an important bottleneck in increasing production. Till now, a total of 78 (75 fungal and 3 bacterial) species are pathogenic to maize crop in Nepal. The major and economically important maize diseases reported are Gray leaf spot, Northern leaf blight, Southern leaf Blight, Banded leaf and sheath blight, Ear rot, Stalk rot, Head smut, Common rust, Downy mildew and Brown spot. Information on bacterial and virus diseases, nematodes and yield loss assessment is also given. Description of the major maize diseases, their causal organisms, distribution, time and intensity of disease incidence, symptoms, survival, spreads, environmental factors for disease development, yield losses and various disease management strategies corresponded to important maize diseases of Nepal are gathered and compiled thoroughly from the available publications. Concerted efforts of NARC commodity programs, divisions, ARS and RARS involving research on maize pathology and their important outcomes are mentioned. The use of disease management methods focused on host resistance has also been highlighted.
Journal of Maize Research and Development (2015) 1(1):28-52