Non-carcinogenic and Carcinogenic Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Exposure to Indoor Dust in Kathmandu, Nepal

Authors

  • Sulakshya Bhandari 1Department of Environmental Science, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
  • Sudarshana Shakya Department of Botany, Bhaktapur Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Bhaktapur
  • Bijaya Adhikari Department of Environmental Science, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
  • Mahesh Shrestha Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
  • Bindra Devi Shakya Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
  • Achut Ram Pradhananga Department of Chemistry, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
  • Prem Kumar Shrestha Department of Chemistry, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
  • Ramesh Kaji Shakya Department of Zoology, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
  • Dipesh Raj Pant Department of Environmental Science, Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
  • Pawan Raj Shakya Department of Chemistry, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3126/jncs.v42i1.35324

Keywords:

Indoor dust, heavy metals, health risk, contamination assessment, Kathmandu

Abstract

The present study was carried out to assess the contamination of heavy metals in indoor household dust of Kathmandu, Nepal, and its adverse effect on the indoor environment and human health. The concentrations of four heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) in a total of ninety-three (N = 93) indoor dust samples collected from four different types of land use zones viz., commercial, heavy traffic, residential, and control (undisturbed) of Kathmandu were determined by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). The mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb in indoor dust samples over the study zones were 0.89, 158.1, 113.3, and 65.3 mg kg−1, respectively. The land use zones showed the various degree of metal contamination in indoor dust ranging from moderate to considerable level. PLI showed a high pollution load in the monitored locations, indicating an alarming condition and the urgent need for immediate remedial actions. Hazard quotient (HQ) values indicated ingestion as the major pathway of indoor dust heavy metal exposure to children while the inhalation pathway remained dominant in adults. Hazard index (HI) values showed no probable non-carcinogenic risk of the heavy metals present in the indoor dust of Kathmandu. For carcinogenic health risk, TLCR values were found within the acceptable safe limit indicating no cancer risk for both the receptor groups.

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Published

2021-03-01

How to Cite

Bhandari, S., Shakya, S., Adhikari, B., Shrestha, M., Shakya, B. D., Pradhananga, A. R., Shrestha, P. K., Shakya, R. K., Pant, D. R., & Shakya, P. R. (2021). Non-carcinogenic and Carcinogenic Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Exposure to Indoor Dust in Kathmandu, Nepal. Journal of Nepal Chemical Society, 42(1), 16–28. https://doi.org/10.3126/jncs.v42i1.35324

Issue

Section

Research Article