Clinico-Epidemiological Study of Acute Flaccid Paralysis at a Tertiary Centre

Authors

  • Shipra Chaudhary B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Ghopa, Dharan, Nepal
  • Nisha Keshary Bhatta B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Ghopa, Dharan, Nepal
  • Basudha Khanal B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Ghopa, Dharan, Nepal
  • Rabin Bhandari B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Ghopa, Dharan, Nepal
  • Rupa Rajbhandari Singh B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Ghopa, Dharan, Nepal

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3126/jnps.v34i2.9794

Keywords:

Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES), Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP), Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS), Japanese Encephalitis (JE)

Abstract

Objectives: To study the clinico-epidemiological profile of different causes of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) including Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) and their associated co-morbidities.

Methodology: A prospective hospital-based study was carried out including all cases fulfilling AFP case definition. History, clinical examination, necessary investigations were performed and required treatment given. Regular follow-ups were done and final classification made alongwith AFP surveillance team.

Results: Out of 43 children included in the study, 18 expired and 25 completed follow-up. Final classification showed 53.5% AES, 9.3% Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS), 9.3% dyselectrolytemia, 9.3%, peripheral neuritis, 7% Non-Polio Entero Virus (NPEV) and 11.6% others. Fever, altered sensorium and convulsions were present in 79.1%, 65.1% and 58.1% respectively. Eighty-four percent had asymmetrical paralysis with quadriparesis in 72%. Cerebrospinal fluid was abnormal in 34.9%. Japanese encephalitis serology was positive in 4.7%.  The mean GCS was 9.53±4.27 with a significant difference between survivors and non-survivors (p=0.02). Almost half (52.2%) required ICU care, of which 14 expired (p=0.005). Seventeen children needed mechanical ventilation, of which 13 died (p<0.001). Requirement of inotropes and complications like respiratory failure and autonomic failure were significantly related to death.

Conclusion: AES, being one of the commonest causes of AFP, should be included in AFP surveillance. Poor GCS, requirement of inotropes, complications like respiratory failure and autonomic failure are related with poor prognosis. This study also helped in national surveillance of AFP cases in the eastern region and the target to achieve polio eradication in our country.

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jnps.v34i2.9794

J Nepal Paediatr Soc 2014;34(2):104-110

 

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Author Biographies

Shipra Chaudhary, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Ghopa, Dharan, Nepal

Senior Resident, Department of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, BPKIHS, Ghopa, Dharan

Nisha Keshary Bhatta, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Ghopa, Dharan, Nepal

Professor, Dept of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, BPKIHS

Basudha Khanal, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Ghopa, Dharan, Nepal

Professor, Dept of Microbiology, BPKIHS

Rabin Bhandari, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Ghopa, Dharan, Nepal

Associate Professor, Dept of General Practice & Emergency Medicine, BPKIHS

Rupa Rajbhandari Singh, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Ghopa, Dharan, Nepal

Professor, Dept of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, BPKIHS

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Published

2014-10-30

How to Cite

Chaudhary, S., Keshary Bhatta, N., Khanal, B., Bhandari, R., & Rajbhandari Singh, R. (2014). Clinico-Epidemiological Study of Acute Flaccid Paralysis at a Tertiary Centre. Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society, 34(2), 104–110. https://doi.org/10.3126/jnps.v34i2.9794

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Original Articles