Stress in women with Reproductive Failure


  • Sunita Bhandari KIST Medical College, Lalitpur


infertility, recurrent miscarriage, stress


Aims: The study aim to measure the level of stress in women with recurrent miscarriage and infertile women undergoing in-vitro fertilization treatment using psychological, endocrinological and immunological markers of stress.

Methods: Group A(Recurrent Miscarriage Group, RM Group) of 20 women who had had at least three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions after negative biomedical diagnostic screening test; Group B (Infertility Group) of 40 infertile women undergoing in-vitro fertilization treatment after down-regulation with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) agonist in a long protocol and Group C (Control Group) of 15 fertile women were asked to complete the stress questionnaires : the Perceived stress scale (PSS), the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI), the Positive and Negative Scale (PANAS) and the SF-12 Health Survey. Blood samples were collected to measure natural killer (NK) cells and cortisol levels.

Results: The score of stress questionnaires were significantly high in women with reproductive failure compared to fertile control group (p=0.023 for PSS; p=0.011 for FPI; p=0.013 for negative scale of PANAS) and the score of MCS from SF-12 Health Survey was significantly lower compared to control group (p=0.001). However, no significant differences were seen between women with RM and infertile women undergoing IVF treatment. Women with reproductive failure have increased number of peripheral NK cells compared to controls (p=0.000). No significant difference was found in the serum cortisol level between the women with reproductive failure and fertile women.

Conclusions: Women with reproductive failure perceived higher levels of psychological stress. Level of stress in women with recurrent miscarriage is comparable to that of infertile women undergoing in-vitro fertilization treatment. Increased numbers of NK cells were found in the peripheral blood of women with reproductive failure.


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Author Biography

Sunita Bhandari, KIST Medical College, Lalitpur

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology




How to Cite

Bhandari, S. (2016). Stress in women with Reproductive Failure. Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 11(1), 14–19. Retrieved from



Original Articles