Vacuum Deliveries: A Retrospective Study on Immediate Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara
Keywords:Obstetrics, outcomes, Operative vaginal deliveries, Vacuum delivery
Introduction: The overall rate of operative vaginal delivery is diminishing, but the proportion of operative vaginal deliveries conducted by vacuum is increasing. As forceps assisted delivery requires more skill and has more complications on maternal genital tract, this procedure is being less frequently practiced. By the 1970s, the vacuum extractor virtually replaced forceps for assisted deliveries in most of the countries. Vacuum assisted vaginal delivery reduces maternal as well as neonatal morbidity and mortality in prolonged second stage of labor, non reassuring fetal status and maternal conditions requiring a shortened second stage.
Materials and Methods: This was a record based retrospective study of 217 vacuum assisted vaginal deliveries conducted at Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara for a period of one year. Patient’s discharge charts were studied and details of indications for vacuum application, maternal genital tract status, amount of blood loss, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), birth weight, APGAR score at 1 and 5 minute, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admission and neonatal death (NND) were collected. Descriptive data analysis was done using SPSS program.
Results: Out of the 8778 deliveries conducted during the study period, 217 (2.47%) cases were vacuum assisted vaginal deliveries. No significant adverse obstetrics outcomes were noted. Most frequent indication was fetal distress which accounted for 53.9%. Though 3rd/4th degree perineal tears were less, episiotomy rate was higher (69.1%). Regarding neonatal outcomes, mean APGAR score at 5 minute was 7.42 ± 1.11 SD and 12.4% neonates had APGAR score of less than 7 at 5 minute.
Conclusion: When standard criteria for vacuum application are met and standard norms are followed, there is no evidence of adverse obstetrics outcomes in vacuum assisted vaginal delivery. Prompt delivery by a skilled clinician in non reassuring fetal cardiac status reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality.
© Medical Journal of Pokhara Academy of Health Sciences