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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses Times New Roman 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

A submission to be published in the journal The Spectrum: A Peer-reviewed Interdisciplinary Journal must be an original work, not previously published or borrowed other's work. All submissions to this journal undergo first initial editor screening and rigorous peer-review, refereeing by two anonymous reviewers. The review process may take from two to three months.

Before submitting your manuscript, or for that matter, before writing for this journal, please consider that the audience of this journal entails a wide range: from academics to professionals, researchers, teachers, students as well as others. This journal publishes only the original research articles presenting theoretical/practical discussion of currently relevant topics and issues. We try to promote localized, (inter)disciplinary knowledge as well as comparative perspectives. Similarly, we publish full-length research, opinion and review papers.

Legal Requirements

  • The Editorial Board exclusively assumes that all the papers submitted to this journal are original and are not, partly or wholly, published anywhere else, nor are currently being considered for publication or in process of publication elsewhere.
  • Similarly, when authors submit their manuscripts, they declare that their manuscripts are their own writing and that there are no plagiarized texts in any form either from published or unpublished sources. The authors should fully honor others’ copyright.
  • The author(s) is responsible for ensuring the accuracy of facts, information, or the content in the papers submitted. Their paper should not contain any illegal, unauthorized, and unethical content. The authors are responsible for the ideas mentioned, discussed, analyzed and cited, and conclusions drawn. Thus, they should take all the responsibilities of whatsoever is written in their papers and have nothing to do with the Publisher (Triton International College) and the members of the Editorial Team.
  • Ideas, opinions, conclusions and critics expressed in the papers published in The Spectrum are solely those of authors and in no way represent views and policies of the Editorial Board or publishing organization. Thus, there will be no liability of the Editorial Board or publishing organization in case of any claim or critics by third party, researcher(s) should thus be accountable solely for any. The published work in The Spectrum, will not be published anywhere else without consent of the Editorial Board.
  • By submitting a manuscript to The Spectrum, the Editorial Board assumes that the author(s) fully agree, if accepted for publication, to transfer to the publisher the exclusive right to first distribute their paper under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).

Manuscript Review Process
The journal follows a rigorous review process for its quality assurance. After the manuscripts are submitted for publication, each manuscript goes through several stages before it is published. At first, all submissions will go through editorial screening to check if the submissions meet the scope, format and criteria of the journal. This is followed by a plagiarism detection software for similarity check. After this, the editorial decision will be communicated to the authors. Manuscripts that meet the requirements of editorial screening and plagiarism results will go through the blinded peer review process. After the reviewers' reports are received, each author will be communicated to incorporate the feedback given by the peer reviewers. With substantive comments and evidence-based feedback, the peer reviewers can suggest the rejection or acceptance (with minor/major revision) of the manuscript.   

Each revised manuscript submitted to editorial board will again be reviewed by a panel of editors for quality and standard check. The manuscripts can be rejected in this stage as well on the basis of whether the author(s) have sincerely implemented, revised and improved the manuscript as per the reviewers' report. Finally, the manuscripts that pass editorial review process will be proofread by the copy editors, if necessary, with conversation with the respective author(s) for language clarity, formatting, and other seminal aspects of writing mechanics to ensure the final publication.

Manuscript Preparation

  • The papers to be submitted should be written in English or Nepali, and should consist of 5000 to 7000 words including abstracts, references, and notes.
  • The title page should contain the title, the name, institutional affiliation(s), position, E-mail of each author, and, in the case of co-authorship indicate the corresponding author.
  • All papers should also include an abstract of about 200-50 words. Likewise, all papers should also have 3-5 keywords, placed immediately below the abstract.
  • References in the manuscript should follow the author-date format following APA (7th edition) and MLA style (9th Edition) and should include Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). DOIs can be looked up here.
  • Headings, sub-titles, footnotes and/or endnotes should be documented as per the latest edition of style guide (APA or MLA) that author has followed.
  • The editors of the journal humbly urge the authors to pay particular and close attention to making the language of the paper politically correct and non-discriminatory in any way. Please avoid sexist and racist terms.
  • In case copyrighted materials are to be used, it is the responsibility of the authors to obtain permission to reproduce the copyrighted materials.
  • The paper should be sent online as a standard attached file in MS Word. Please name your file clearly in the following format: NameSurname_Day_Month_year (e. g. KumarThapa_05_07_022)
  • Final decisions on the acceptance of the manuscript will be communicated to authors by email.

Page Layout and Design
Manuscripts should be submitted in the following format:

  1. Font: Times New Roman, size 12 (including titles and headings)
  2. Line space: Double
  3. Page margin: one-inch on all sides
  4. Text alignment: left
  5. Paragraphs: indent each paragraph (half-inch); no extra space in between paragraphs 
  6. The manuscript should be sent in two files: one with metadata (containing the title page and abstract page) and the other main paper (beginning with the introduction, without the title of the paper and author information).
  7. The title page includes (in the order of): running head (also included on all other pages, flush left) and page number (flush right), title and subtitle of the paper (title case, bold, centered), and author information (each author's name, affiliation, email, ORCID (register here), submission date.
  8. Author information [in standard (i.e., nonbold, nonitalic) font]: Place author information on a new line (two lines below the title) in the order of your name [first name, middle initial(s), surname]; affiliated institution (department or division, name of the institution), town/city and country; your email address on a new line; and your ORCID Number on a new line.
  9. Add an asterisk (*) after the name of the corresponding author. Generally, the lead author is the corresponding author, but it is not necessary.
  10. At the end of the title page, type the date you email your paper.
  11. The second page is the ‘Abstract’ page. Type Abstract (bold, centered), and on the next line begin the abstract text (without indentation). The abstract should be of about 200 words.
  12. One line below the abstract, write the label “Keywords:” (bold), followed by three to five keywords (standard font) in lowercase (but capitalize necessary words like proper nouns), separated by commas.
  13. The main content of the paper should start on a new page. This is the content file of your manuscript which should exclusively contain the main text of the paper (do not repeat the title), with endnotes (if any), acknowledgements (if any), references, and appendices (if any).
  14. Tables should where possible be created simply using MS Word Table function. And, the tables and figures must follow the referencing style adopted by the author(s).
  15. Contents within the tables are to be single-spaced. Please use Font size 12 for both title and body.
  16. For emphasis, please use italics, not bold. Italics should also be used for non-English words, titles of books, plays, etc.
  17. Quotations less than 40 words are included within the paragraph enclosed by double-quotes. Quotations more than 40 words are to be separated from the paragraph, and the whole block is indented half-inch. Do not use double quotation marks to enclose the block quotation. The Editorial Board of this journal encourages authors to try to avoid too many block quotations.

Privacy Statement

Nepal Journals Online (NepJOL) is a member of the Ubiquity Partner Network coordinated by Ubiquity Press. According to the EU definitions, NepJOL is the data controller, and Ubiquity Press are the service providers and data processors. Ubiquity Press provide the technical platform and some publishing services to NepJOL and operate under the principle of data minimisation where only the minimal amount of personal data that is required to carry out a task is obtained.

More information on the type of data that is required can be found in Ubiquity Press’ privacy policy below.

Ubiquity Press Privacy Policy

We take seriously our duty to process your personal data in a fair and transparent way. We collect and manage user data according to the following Privacy Policy. This document is part of our Terms of Service, and by using the press portal, affiliated journals, book, conference and repository websites (the “Websites”), you agree to the terms of this Privacy Policy and the Terms of Service. Please read the Terms of Service in their entirety, and refer to those for definitions and contacts.

What type of personal data do we handle?

There are four main categories of personal data stored by our journal platform, our press platform, and our book management system; Website User data, Author data, Reviewer data and Editor data.

The minimum personal data that are stored are:

  • full name
  • email address
  • affiliation (department, and institution)
  • country of residence

Optionally, the user can provide:

  • salutation
  • gender
  • associated URL
  • phone number
  • fax number
  • reviewing interests
  • mailing address
  • ORCiD
  • a short biography
  • interests
  • Twitter profile
  • LinkedIn profile
  • ImpactStory profile
  • profile picture

The data subjects have complete control of this data through their profile, and can request for it to be removed by contacting

What do we do to keep that data secure?

We regularly backup our databases, and we use reliable cloud service providers (Amazon, Google Cloud, Linode) to ensure they are kept securely. Backups are regularly rotated and the old data is permanently deleted. We have a clear internal data handling policy, restricting access to the data and backups to key employees only. In case of a data breach, we will report the breach to the affected users, and to the press/journal contacts within 72 hours.

How do we use the data?

Personal information is only used to deliver the services provided by the publisher. Personal data is not shared externally except for author names, affiliations, emails, and links to ORCiD and social media accounts (if provided) in published articles and books which are displayed as part of the article/book and shared externally to indexes and databases. If a journal operates under open peer review then the reviewer details are published alongside the reviewer details.

How we collect and use your data:

1. When using the website

1.1 what data we collect

  • When you browse our website, we collect anonymised data about your use of the website; for example, we collect information about which pages you view, which files you download, what browser you are using, and when you were using the site.
  • When you comment on an article or book using Disqus, we are not collecting, controlling or processing the data. More details on the DISQUS privacy policy can be found on their website.
  • When you annotate an article or book, this is done via a 3rd party plugin to the website called In using this plugin we are not collecting, controlling or processing the data. More details on the privacy policy can be found on their website.

1.2 why we collect the data

  • We use anonymised website usage data to monitor traffic, help fix bugs, and see overall patterns that inform future redesigns of the website, and provide reports on how frequently the publications on our site have been accessed from within their IP ranges.

1.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • We do not collect personal information that can be used to identify you when you browse the website.
  • We currently use Google Analytics for publication reports, and to improve the website and services through traffic analysis, but no personal identifying data is shared with Google (for example your computer’s IP is anonymised before transmission).

1.4 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • Please contact to request a copy of your data, or for your data to be removed/anonymised.

2. When registering as an author, and submitting an article or book

2.1 what data we collect

  • When registering an account we ask you to log in and provide certain personal information (such as your name and email address), and there is the option to register using an ORCiD which will pre-fill the registration form.
  • As part of submitting an article for publication, you will need to provide personally identifying information which will be used for the peer review process, and will be published. This can include ‘Affiliation’, ‘Competing interests’, ‘Acknowledgements’.

2.2 why we collect the data

  • Registering an account allows you to log in, manage your profile, and participate as an author/reviewer/editor. We use cookies and session information to streamline your use of the website (for example in order for you to remain logged-in when you return to a journal). You can block or delete cookies and still be able to use the websites, although if you do you will then need to enter your username and password to login. In order to take advantage of certain features of the websites, you may also choose to provide us with other personal information, such as your ORCiD, but your decision to utilize these features and provide such data will always be voluntary.
  • Personal data submitted with the article or book is collected to allow follow good publication ethics during the review process, and will form part of the official published record in order for the provenance of the work to be established, and for the work to be correctly attributed.

2.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • We do not share your personal information with third parties, other than as part of providing the publishing service.
  • As a registered author in the system you may be contacted by the journal editor to submit another article.
  • Any books published on the platform are freely available to download from the publisher website in PDF, EPUB and MOBI formats on the publisher’s site.
  • Any personal data accompanying an article or a book (that will have been added by the submitting author) is published alongside it. The published data includes the names, affiliations and email addresses of all authors.
  • Any articles published on the platform are freely available to download from the publisher website in various formats (e.g. PDF, XML).
  • Ubiquity Press books and articles are typeset by SiliconChips and Diacritech.This process involves them receiving the book and book associated metadata and contacting the authors to finalise the layout. Ubiquity Press work with these suppliers to ensure that personal data is only used for the purposes of typesetting and proofing.
  • For physical purchases of books on the platform Ubiquity Press use print on demand services via Lightning Source who are responsible for printing and distribution via retailers. (For example; Amazon, Book Repository, Waterstones). Lightning Source’s privacy policy and details on data handling can be found on their website.

2.4 why we store the data

  • We store the account data so that you may choose to become a reviewer and be able to perform those tasks, or to become an author and submit an article and then track progress of that article.
  • Published personal data that accompanies an article or a book forms part of the official published record in order for the provenance of the work to be established, and for the work to be correctly attributed.

2.5 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • You are able to view, change and remove your data associated with your profile. Should you choose to completely delete your account, please contact us at and we will follow up with your request as soon as possible.
  • To conform to publication ethics and best practice any personal data that is published alongside an article or book cannot be removed. If you have a query about a publication to which you are attributed please contact

3. When registering as a reviewer

3.1 what data we collect

  • To become a reviewer you must first register as a user on the website, and set your preference that you would like to be considered as a reviewer. No new personal data is collected when a registered user elects to become a reviewer.
  • When registering an account we ask you to log in and provide certain personal information (such as your name and email address), and there is the option to register using an ORCiD which will pre-fill the registration form.
  • Reviewers can also be registered by editors who invite them to review a specific article. This requires the editor to provide the reviewer’s First Name, Last Name, and Email address. Normally this will be done as part of the process of inviting you to review the article or book.
  • On submitting a review, the reviewer includes a competing interest statement, they may answer questions about the quality of the article, and they will submit their recommendation.

3.2 why we collect the data

  • The data entered is used to invite the reviewer to peer review the article or book, and to contact the reviewer during and the review process.
  • If you submit a review then the details of your review, including your recommendation, your responses to any review form, your free-form responses, your competing interests statement, and any cover letter are recorded.

3.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • This data is not shared publicly and is only accessible by the Editor and system administrators of that journal or press.
  • The data will only be used in connection with that journal or press.
  • Data that is retained post final decision is kept to conform to publication ethics and best practice, to provide evidence of peer review, and to resolve any disputes relating to the peer review of the article or book.
  • For journals or presses that publish the peer reviews, you will be asked to give consent to your review being published, and a subset of the data you have submitted will become part of the published record.

3.4 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • If you would no longer like to be registered as a reviewer you can edit your profile and tick the box ‘stop being a reviewer’. This will remove you from the reviewer database, however any existing reviews you may have carried out will remain.
  • If you have been contacted by an editor to peer review an article this means that you have been registered in the system. If you would not like to be contacted for peer review you can reply to the email requesting that your data be deleted.

4. When being registered as a co-author

4.1 what data we collect

  • Co-author data is entered by the submitting author. The submitting author will already have a user account. According to standard publishing practice, the submitting author is responsible for obtaining the consent of their co-authors to be included (including having their personal data included) in the article/book being submitted to the journal/press.
  • The requested personal data for co-authors are at the bare minimum; first name, last name, institution, country, email address. This can also include; ORCID ID, Title, Middle Name, Biographical Statement, Department, Twitter Handle, Linkedin Profile Name or ImpactStory ID.

4.2 why we collect the data

  • Assuming that it is accepted for publication, this data forms part of the official published record in order for the provenance of the work to be established, and for the work to be correctly attributed.
  • Author names, affiliations and emails are required for publication and will become part of the permanent cited record.

4.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • The co-author’s personal data is stored in the author database. This personal data is only used in relation to the publication of the associated article.
  • Any co-author data collected is added to the author database and is only used in association with the article the user is co-author on.

4.5 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • To receive a copy of your data, please contact
  • To conform to publication ethics and best practice any personal data that is published alongside an article or book cannot be removed. If you have a query about a publication to which you are attributed please contact

5. When signing-up to receive newsletters

5.1 what data we collect

  • We require you to include your name and email address

5.2 why we collect and store the data, and for how long

  • This data would be collected to keep you updated with any news about the platform or specific journal

5.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • We use mailchimp to provide our mailing list services. Their privacy policy can be found here

5.4 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data or want your data to be removed

  • All emails sent via our newsletter client will include a link that will allow you to unsubscribe from the mailing list

Notification about change of ownership or of control of data

We may choose to buy or sell assets. In the case that control of data changes to or from Ubiquity Press and a third party, or in the case of change of ownership of Ubiquity Press or of part of the business where the control of personal data is transferred, we will do our best to inform all affected users and present the options.

(Updated: 15th May 2022)