Elevation Dependency of Precipitation over Southern Slope of Central Himalaya

Authors

  • Shankar Sharma Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Nitesh Khadka Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
  • Bikash Nepal Government of Nepal, Nepal
  • Shravan Kumar Ghimire Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
  • Nirajan Luintel Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Kalpana Hamal Univesity of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3126/jalawaayu.v1i1.36446

Keywords:

MSWEP, Precipitation, Elevation dependency, Nepal

Abstract

Precipitation plays vital roles in the global water cycle, knowledge of the spatial and temporal variation of the precipitation is essential to understanding extreme environmental phenomena such as floods, landslides, and drought. In this paper, the integrated characteristics of precipitation during 1980–2016 over Nepal along with the seasonal elevation dependency of precipitation were examined for three different regions over the country using Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) product. The spatial distribution of mean annual precipitation varies significantly with the highest (lowest) precipitation of ~5500 (~100) mm/year in the Arun valley (Manang and Mustang). The precipitation regime of the country is determined by the contribution of the monthly precipitation amount with distinct spatial gradients between the eastern and the western sides during pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter seasons. On the contrary, the spatial distribution of monsoon precipitation tends to more heterogeneous with visible differences between the lowland, midland, and highlands as similar to the annual one. Further, elevation dependency of seasonal precipitation revealed that the winter and post-monsoon precipitation distribution in western and central are very similar, whereas post-monsoon precipitation was found slightly higher than winter season in the eastern region. The highest precipitation areas in eastern and central region are located between 2000-2500 m, which is between 500 and 1000 m in the western region of the country. Overall, the pre-monsoon, summer monsoon and annual precipitation increases gradually with elevation upto 2500 m and then decreases with increasing elevation, whereas winter and post-monsoon precipitation are almost identical to each elevation interval of 500 m.

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Author Biographies

Shankar Sharma, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal

Central Department of Hydrology and Meteorology

Nitesh Khadka, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China

Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Bikash Nepal, Government of Nepal, Nepal

Department of Hydrology and Meteorology

Shravan Kumar Ghimire, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China

Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Nirajan Luintel, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

National Tibetan Plateau Data Center, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research and Kathmandu Centre for Research and Education, Chinese Academy of Sciences-Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur 44613, Kathmandu, Nepal

Kalpana Hamal, Univesity of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

International Center for Climate and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 9804, Beijing 100029, China

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Published

2021-04-21

How to Cite

Sharma, S., Khadka, N., Nepal, B., Ghimire, S. K., Luintel, N., & Hamal, K. (2021). Elevation Dependency of Precipitation over Southern Slope of Central Himalaya. Jalawaayu, 1(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3126/jalawaayu.v1i1.36446

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Articles