Climate Change and Its Impact on Nepalese Agriculture
Exponential growth of CO2 and other greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is causing climate change. It affects agriculture, forestry, human health, biodiversity, snow coverand aquatic to mountain ecosystems. Changes in climatic factors like temperature, solar radiation and precipitation have potentials to influence crop production. Despite many efforts possible on combating impacts of climate change, there are still difficulties in Nepalese agriculture. With an average of 0.06ºC/yea, a rise in temperature from 1975 to 2006 by 1.8ºC has been recorded in the country. Problem of frequent drought, severe floods, landslides and mixed type of effects in agricultural crops have been experienced in Nepal because of climate change. Study done on CO2 enrichment technology at Khumaltar revealed that the yield of rice and wheat increased by 26.6% and 18.4% due to double CO2, 17.1% and 8.6% due to increase in temperature respectively. A crop simulation model (DSSAT) to study the effects of CO2, temperature and rain in NARC showed positive effect in yield of rice and wheat in all regions, but negative effect in maize especially in Terai. In Nepalese agriculture, the time has come for the authorities to find out adaptive measures to mitigate the effects to reduce untold natural calamities and miseries due to recent erratic weather pattern.
Key words: Agricultural crops; GHGs and CO2; Temperature; Precipitation
The Journal of Agriculture and Environment Vol:.9, Jun.2008 page:62-71