Sero-prevalence of Influenza a Antibodies in Pigs of Bhaktapur, Kavre and Banke Districts of Nepal

Diksha Pokhrel, Ishab Poudel, Rabin Raut, Sitaram Aryal, Krishna Acharya


Pigs play a key role in inter-species transmission of influenza virus, because they have receptors to both avian and human influenza viral strains. A study was conducted in three different districts namely Bhaktapur, Kavre and Banke with face to face type of questionnaire survey and serum sample collection. Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunoassay was utilized for the collected 231 samples for serologic evidence of influenza A. Of the total 231 samples tested, 11 were positive for Influenza virus A with an overall sero-prevalence of (4.76%; Cl95%: 2.68-8.324) Kavre district had highest (5.88%; Cl95%: 2.539-13.04) sero-prevalence, followed by Bhaktapur (5.13%; Cl95%: 2.012-12.46) and Banke (2.94%; Cl95%; 0.8104-10.1) with no significant difference (p=0.685). Rearing swine along with poultry was the most significant risk factor (p=0.03); all positive cases were from the farms that adopted integrated farming system with little to no bio-security measures, especially poultry and swine. Present finding depicts that Influenza A is prevalent in pig farms of Kavre, Banke and Bhaktapur. Further research is needed to sub-type the influenza virus and also determine the effect of commercial poultry and migratory birds on the outbreak of influenza A in swine.

 Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(2): 122-126


Sero-prevalence; Influenza A; ELISA; Risk factor; Pig; Nepal

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