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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word file format.
  • Where available, DOIs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses Times New Roman 11-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

AJBM frequently publishes calls for papers on various topics. Please visit each section's home page for calls for papers specific to the relevant section.

Please direct all in editorial inquiries to the journal editorial team at

The AJBM journal invites authors to submit critical readings and research articles from areas of their interest and expertise in business, social sciences, management and technology for review and consideration for publication stop articles that bridge disciplines and theories and link contemporary discourses on business conditions, practises and actions with the need to make life better, fairer, sustainable and equitable, receive preference for publication in the journal. Submissions must be unpublished original research. Authors must review the submission guidelines section prior to making acceptable submission.

Manuscript Submission
Research papers prepared in MS Word Template with double-column singl spaced typed pages should be submitted electronically as attachment at The manuscripts in all the subject areas are welcome.

Formatting will be done by the journal production team. During the process the copy editor may contact authors if they require any specific information. The final formatted paper will be shared with the authors for their approval as a final chance for correction,

Author Guidelines

Title (font size 18, Times New Roman)

Authors names, Abstract and Keywords (Font size 12, Times New Roman)
Author1*, & Author2

1 Authors name and institutional affiliation, address
ORCID: ..........................  Email: ..............................

2 Author's name and institutional affiliation, address
ORCID: ..........................  Email: ..............................

Paper Type:
Keywords: 5-7 Keywords

INTRODUCTION (font size 11 Times New Roman from here to the end of the paper)
This section should discuss the background of the research issues being dealt, statement of the problem, research questions, and research objectives, significance of the study. Introduction must revolve around the research issue to be dealt by the report. Throughout the text table and figure should be numbered and cited strictly. Provide appendix if urgently required.

LITERATURE REVIEW may follow the sequence
2.1 Overview of Literature
2.1.1 Theoretical Review
2.1.2 Policy Review
2.1.3 Empirical Review
2.1.4 Methodological Review
2.2 Theoretical/Conceptual Framework.
However, it is subject to researchers and reviewers decisions. Operational Definition may be given if required.

This section includes the discussion about the way you conducted your research in order to meet the objectives. Selected methodology should be discussed in details along with the justification of selecting the methodology. It should include research design (Explanatory, Descriptive, Exploratory, historical research, experimental research, field research, and survey research), research approaches (qualitative, quantitative), study area, study population, sample selection (sample selection methods), sample size, methods of data collection (Key Informant Interview, Focused Group Discussion, Questionnaire schedule, observation) and data analysis.

Possible frame may be
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Selection of the Study Area
3.3 Nature and Sources of Data
3.4 Universe and Sampling Procedure
3.5 Data Collection Tools/Techniques
3.5.1 Interview Schedule/Questionnaire
3.5.2 Observation (Participant or Nonparticipant)
3.5.3 Key Informants Interview/FGD
3.5.4 Case Study/Content Analysis/GS/PRA/RRA
3.6 Data Analysis and Presentation
3.7 Reliability and Validity of the Data.

Instrumentation and Scaling should be carefully checked in line with research philosophy. Research onion may be a tool for effective application.

This is subject to researcher and reviewers’ decisions

Conceptual Definition: This may be necessary to strength the theoretical framework of the study, and to ensure the validity and reliability of the study for the purpose of communicating the concepts.

Operational Definition: This should be promoted over conceptual definition whenever necessary.

Test Hypotheses: A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of relations (based on the statement of the problem and the objective of the study) between two or more variables in either negative or positive terms. It should be neither too general nor too specific. However, it should specify how the variables are related. The hypotheses thus could be formulated as a null hypothesis, against alternatives.

This section should present the findings of the study in logical sequences in line with the specific objectives. Descriptive Analysis and Inferential Analysis may be used for inference to get Major Findings followed by rigorous Discussion. The causal factors behind the findings should be discussed in relation to other variables under consideration in the study based on Focused Group Discussion (FGD), Key Informant Interview (KII) or literature reviews. Qualitative data may be analysed using appropriate concept to produce new theory systematically.

Conclusion is integration of various issues covered in the body of the text. It should discuss the meaning of all of it. Conclusion includes noting any implications resulting from the discussing and making policy recommendation as well as the need for further research. Hence, the conclusion should be a logical ending to what has been previously discussed. It must pull together all parts of the argument and refer the reader back to the focus you have outlined in your introduction and to the central topic. Never present any new information in this section. Thus, conclusion and recommendation of the study must be limited within the scope of the research. It should be based only on the findings of the study and unnecessary general conclusion and recommended must be avoided. Recommendation for further study should be provided if applicable.

Limitations of the Study
Conflict of Interest

REFERENCES: (Generally Minimum 30 References, strictly in APA format mostly from Journals) (Hyperlink should be given to website/ Google Scholar search page/ DOI)

[1] Mishra, Anjay Kumar, & Aithal, P. S., (2021). Foreign Aid Movements in Nepal. International Journal of Management, Technology, and Social Sciences (IJMTS), 6 (1),142-161. DOI:

[2] Mishra A. K., & Aithal P. S., (2021). Foreign Aid Contribution for the Development of Nepal. International Journal of Management, Technology, and Social Sciences (IJMTS),6(1), 162-169. DOI:

[3] Mishra A. K., (2020). Project management: theory and practice from different countries. Project management: theory and practice from different countries. Tamilnadu: DK International Research Foundation. 2020.

[4] Sauden, A., Mishra, A. K., & Aithal, P. S., (2022). Assessing the Seeds of Disputes in Projects. International Journal of Case Studies in Business, IT, and Education (IJCSBE),6(2), 538-552. DOI:

[5] Mishra, A. K. (2018). Dispute Resolution Practice of Project Management in Nepal. J Adv Res BusiLaw Tech Mgmt, 1(4): 1-11.

[6] Mishra, A. K., Mandal, L., & Pant, R. R. (2018). Causes of dispute in international competitive bidding road contracts funded by Asian Development Bank in Nepal. J. Adv. Res. Busi. Law Technol. Manage, 1(3), 5-16. DOI:

[7] Mishra, A. K., Sudarsan, J. S., and Nithiyanantham, S. (2021). Assessment of Time–Cost Model of Public Health Buildings in Nepal. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, 22(1), 13–22.

[8] Aithal, P. S., Shailashree, V. T. & Suresh Kumar, P. M. (2015). A New ABCD Technique to Analyze Business Models & Concepts. International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering (IJMIE), 5(4), 409 – 423. Google Scholar    CrossRef/DOI

[9] Aithal, P. S., Shailashree V. T. & Suresh Kumar P. M. (2016). Factors & Elemental Analysis of Six Thinking Hats Technique using ABCD Framework. International Journal of Advanced Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJATET), 1(1), 85-95. Google Scholar    CrossRef/DOI

[10] Aithal, P. S., (2016). Study on ABCD Analysis Technique for Business Models, business strategies, Operating Concepts & Business Systems, International Journal in Management and Social Science, 4(1), 98-115. Google Scholar    CrossRef/DOI


NOTE: Only relevant articles should be cited in the body of the text using the format [x] and listed in the Reference section in APA (American Psychological Association) format. Please ensure that at least 30% papers cited are open access published sources searchable from Google Scholar, Scopus, WoS, etc.

Formatting and Proofreading:
Once the review process is through and if the manuscript is accepted then we process the article for copyediting. In case there are any queries by the copy-editor then we have to revert to the author. Once strict scrutiny is completed then we initiate formatting of the paper in our decided layout and send the camera-ready copy to the Authors for proofreading. The article is published with the formal consent of the author after proofreading the entire document.

Privacy Statement

Nepal Journals Online (NepJOL) is a member of the Ubiquity Partner Network coordinated by Ubiquity Press. According to the EU definitions, NepJOL is the data controller, and Ubiquity Press are the service providers and data processors. Ubiquity Press provide the technical platform and some publishing services to NepJOL and operate under the principle of data minimisation where only the minimal amount of personal data that is required to carry out a task is obtained.

More information on the type of data that is required can be found in Ubiquity Press’ privacy policy below.

Ubiquity Press Privacy Policy

We take seriously our duty to process your personal data in a fair and transparent way. We collect and manage user data according to the following Privacy Policy. This document is part of our Terms of Service, and by using the press portal, affiliated journals, book, conference and repository websites (the “Websites”), you agree to the terms of this Privacy Policy and the Terms of Service. Please read the Terms of Service in their entirety, and refer to those for definitions and contacts.

What type of personal data do we handle?

There are four main categories of personal data stored by our journal platform, our press platform, and our book management system; Website User data, Author data, Reviewer data and Editor data.

The minimum personal data that are stored are:

  • full name
  • email address
  • affiliation (department, and institution)
  • country of residence

Optionally, the user can provide:

  • salutation
  • gender
  • associated URL
  • phone number
  • fax number
  • reviewing interests
  • mailing address
  • ORCiD
  • a short biography
  • interests
  • Twitter profile
  • LinkedIn profile
  • ImpactStory profile
  • profile picture

The data subjects have complete control of this data through their profile, and can request for it to be removed by contacting

What do we do to keep that data secure?

We regularly backup our databases, and we use reliable cloud service providers (Amazon, Google Cloud, Linode) to ensure they are kept securely. Backups are regularly rotated and the old data is permanently deleted. We have a clear internal data handling policy, restricting access to the data and backups to key employees only. In case of a data breach, we will report the breach to the affected users, and to the press/journal contacts within 72 hours.

How do we use the data?

Personal information is only used to deliver the services provided by the publisher. Personal data is not shared externally except for author names, affiliations, emails, and links to ORCiD and social media accounts (if provided) in published articles and books which are displayed as part of the article/book and shared externally to indexes and databases. If a journal operates under open peer review then the reviewer details are published alongside the reviewer details.

How we collect and use your data:

1. When using the website

1.1 what data we collect

  • When you browse our website, we collect anonymised data about your use of the website; for example, we collect information about which pages you view, which files you download, what browser you are using, and when you were using the site.
  • When you comment on an article or book using Disqus, we are not collecting, controlling or processing the data. More details on the DISQUS privacy policy can be found on their website.
  • When you annotate an article or book, this is done via a 3rd party plugin to the website called In using this plugin we are not collecting, controlling or processing the data. More details on the privacy policy can be found on their website.

1.2 why we collect the data

  • We use anonymised website usage data to monitor traffic, help fix bugs, and see overall patterns that inform future redesigns of the website, and provide reports on how frequently the publications on our site have been accessed from within their IP ranges.

1.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • We do not collect personal information that can be used to identify you when you browse the website.
  • We currently use Google Analytics for publication reports, and to improve the website and services through traffic analysis, but no personal identifying data is shared with Google (for example your computer’s IP is anonymised before transmission).

1.4 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • Please contact to request a copy of your data, or for your data to be removed/anonymised.

2. When registering as an author, and submitting an article or book

2.1 what data we collect

  • When registering an account we ask you to log in and provide certain personal information (such as your name and email address), and there is the option to register using an ORCiD which will pre-fill the registration form.
  • As part of submitting an article for publication, you will need to provide personally identifying information which will be used for the peer review process, and will be published. This can include ‘Affiliation’, ‘Competing interests’, ‘Acknowledgements’.

2.2 why we collect the data

  • Registering an account allows you to log in, manage your profile, and participate as an author/reviewer/editor. We use cookies and session information to streamline your use of the website (for example in order for you to remain logged-in when you return to a journal). You can block or delete cookies and still be able to use the websites, although if you do you will then need to enter your username and password to login. In order to take advantage of certain features of the websites, you may also choose to provide us with other personal information, such as your ORCiD, but your decision to utilize these features and provide such data will always be voluntary.
  • Personal data submitted with the article or book is collected to allow follow good publication ethics during the review process, and will form part of the official published record in order for the provenance of the work to be established, and for the work to be correctly attributed.

2.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • We do not share your personal information with third parties, other than as part of providing the publishing service.
  • As a registered author in the system you may be contacted by the journal editor to submit another article.
  • Any books published on the platform are freely available to download from the publisher website in PDF, EPUB and MOBI formats on the publisher’s site.
  • Any personal data accompanying an article or a book (that will have been added by the submitting author) is published alongside it. The published data includes the names, affiliations and email addresses of all authors.
  • Any articles published on the platform are freely available to download from the publisher website in various formats (e.g. PDF, XML).
  • Ubiquity Press books and articles are typeset by SiliconChips and Diacritech.This process involves them receiving the book and book associated metadata and contacting the authors to finalise the layout. Ubiquity Press work with these suppliers to ensure that personal data is only used for the purposes of typesetting and proofing.
  • For physical purchases of books on the platform Ubiquity Press use print on demand services via Lightning Source who are responsible for printing and distribution via retailers. (For example; Amazon, Book Repository, Waterstones). Lightning Source’s privacy policy and details on data handling can be found on their website.

2.4 why we store the data

  • We store the account data so that you may choose to become a reviewer and be able to perform those tasks, or to become an author and submit an article and then track progress of that article.
  • Published personal data that accompanies an article or a book forms part of the official published record in order for the provenance of the work to be established, and for the work to be correctly attributed.

2.5 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • You are able to view, change and remove your data associated with your profile. Should you choose to completely delete your account, please contact us at and we will follow up with your request as soon as possible.
  • To conform to publication ethics and best practice any personal data that is published alongside an article or book cannot be removed. If you have a query about a publication to which you are attributed please contact

3. When registering as a reviewer

3.1 what data we collect

  • To become a reviewer you must first register as a user on the website, and set your preference that you would like to be considered as a reviewer. No new personal data is collected when a registered user elects to become a reviewer.
  • When registering an account we ask you to log in and provide certain personal information (such as your name and email address), and there is the option to register using an ORCiD which will pre-fill the registration form.
  • Reviewers can also be registered by editors who invite them to review a specific article. This requires the editor to provide the reviewer’s First Name, Last Name, and Email address. Normally this will be done as part of the process of inviting you to review the article or book.
  • On submitting a review, the reviewer includes a competing interest statement, they may answer questions about the quality of the article, and they will submit their recommendation.

3.2 why we collect the data

  • The data entered is used to invite the reviewer to peer review the article or book, and to contact the reviewer during and the review process.
  • If you submit a review then the details of your review, including your recommendation, your responses to any review form, your free-form responses, your competing interests statement, and any cover letter are recorded.

3.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • This data is not shared publicly and is only accessible by the Editor and system administrators of that journal or press.
  • The data will only be used in connection with that journal or press.
  • Data that is retained post final decision is kept to conform to publication ethics and best practice, to provide evidence of peer review, and to resolve any disputes relating to the peer review of the article or book.
  • For journals or presses that publish the peer reviews, you will be asked to give consent to your review being published, and a subset of the data you have submitted will become part of the published record.

3.4 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • If you would no longer like to be registered as a reviewer you can edit your profile and tick the box ‘stop being a reviewer’. This will remove you from the reviewer database, however any existing reviews you may have carried out will remain.
  • If you have been contacted by an editor to peer review an article this means that you have been registered in the system. If you would not like to be contacted for peer review you can reply to the email requesting that your data be deleted.

4. When being registered as a co-author

4.1 what data we collect

  • Co-author data is entered by the submitting author. The submitting author will already have a user account. According to standard publishing practice, the submitting author is responsible for obtaining the consent of their co-authors to be included (including having their personal data included) in the article/book being submitted to the journal/press.
  • The requested personal data for co-authors are at the bare minimum; first name, last name, institution, country, email address. This can also include; ORCID ID, Title, Middle Name, Biographical Statement, Department, Twitter Handle, Linkedin Profile Name or ImpactStory ID.

4.2 why we collect the data

  • Assuming that it is accepted for publication, this data forms part of the official published record in order for the provenance of the work to be established, and for the work to be correctly attributed.
  • Author names, affiliations and emails are required for publication and will become part of the permanent cited record.

4.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • The co-author’s personal data is stored in the author database. This personal data is only used in relation to the publication of the associated article.
  • Any co-author data collected is added to the author database and is only used in association with the article the user is co-author on.

4.5 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data, or want your data to be removed

  • To receive a copy of your data, please contact
  • To conform to publication ethics and best practice any personal data that is published alongside an article or book cannot be removed. If you have a query about a publication to which you are attributed please contact

5. When signing-up to receive newsletters

5.1 what data we collect

  • We require you to include your name and email address

5.2 why we collect and store the data, and for how long

  • This data would be collected to keep you updated with any news about the platform or specific journal

5.3 what we do (and don’t do) with the data

  • We use mailchimp to provide our mailing list services. Their privacy policy can be found here

5.4 what to do if you want to get a copy of your data or want your data to be removed

  • All emails sent via our newsletter client will include a link that will allow you to unsubscribe from the mailing list

Notification about change of ownership or of control of data

We may choose to buy or sell assets. In the case that control of data changes to or from Ubiquity Press and a third party, or in the case of change of ownership of Ubiquity Press or of part of the business where the control of personal data is transferred, we will do our best to inform all affected users and present the options.

(Updated: 16 January 2024)