Assessment of freshwater plant diversity and local difference in freshwater plant use knowledge in Punakha district, Bhutan
Keywords:Ditches, freshwater plant, pond, lake, stream
Freshwater plants play a paramount role in an aquatic ecosystem. However, only limited studies have been carried out on freshwater plants. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the diversity of freshwater plants in different freshwater bodies of Punakha District, the correlation of freshwater plant species with the environmental variables, and the local community difference in freshwater plant use knowledge in Punakha district. A total of 20 water bodies were selected using a stratified sampling method. Area-based surveys were employed to assess the plant species from a total of 80 plots, each with the quadrat of 5 m x 5 m. Environmental variables such as altitude, water depth, water velocity, temperature, precipitation and evapotranspiration were measured. The study recorded a total of 72 freshwater plant species distributed among 57 genera and 37 families. Shannon-Weiner diversity index revealed high diversity of freshwater plants from ponds (H’ = 3.3) followed by ditches (H’ = 3.16), streams (H’ = 3.07) and lakes (H’ = 2.83). The study revealed the decrease of freshwater plant species with an increase in the water velocity, depth and altitude. There was a significant association between respondents’ freshwater plant use knowledge with gender (x2 (1) = 6.04, p = .014), age (x2 (1) = 13.21, p = .000) and education level (x2 (1) = 4.53, p = .003). Females and illiterate respondents with aged 31 years old and above had more knowledge on freshwater plant use compared to males and educated respondents with aged 30 years old and below.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Environment
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The author(s) acknowledge that the manuscript submitted is his/her/their own original work; all authors participated in the work in a substantive way and are prepared to take public responsibility for the work; all authors have seen and approved the manuscript as submitted; the manuscript has not been published and is not being submitted or considered for publication elsewhere; the text, illustrations, and any other materials included in the manuscript do not infringe(plagiarism) upon any existing copyright or other rights of anyone.
Notwithstanding the above, the Contributor(s) or, if applicable the Contributor’s Employer, retain(s) all proprietary rights other than copyright, such as Patent rights; to use, free of charge, all parts of this article for the author’s future works in books, lectures, classroom teaching or oral presentations; the right to reproduce the article for their own purposes provided the copies are not offered for sale.
The copyright to the contribution identified is transferred to IJE.