Determination and Contamination Assessment of Heavy Metals in Street Dust from Different Types of Land-Use in Kathmandu District, Nepal

  • Sudarshana Shakya Bhaktapur Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Bhaktapur, Nepal
  • Samikshya Baral Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Priya Belbase Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Mohd Nur E Alam Siddique Global Environment Consultant Ltd., Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Abd Naser HJ Samoh Yala Rajbhat University, Yala, Thailand
  • Banani Das Ministry of Environment and Forest, Bangladesh
  • Prem Kumar Shrestha Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Pawan Raj Shakya Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
Keywords: Street dust, Kathmandu district, Heavy metals, Pollution indices, Enrichment factor

Abstract

A total of forty seven street dust samples, collected from five different types of land use viz., industrial, urban, heavy traffic road, residential and undisturbed areas (control) of Kathmandu district (Nepal), were subjected to characterize the physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductance (EC), total alkalinity (T. Alk), total organic carbon (TOC) and particle size distribution. Four heavy metals of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in dust samples using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). It was found that all types of dust samples possessed alkaline nature along with variation in EC, T. Alk and TOC values. Results revealed that the dust of industrial areas contained high concentrations of Zn (143.3 mg/kg) and Cu (106.42 mg/kg), whereas the heavy traffic areas were mainly affected by Cd (0.90 mg/kg) and Pb (70.08 mg/kg). The average metal concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in dust of all the types of land use in Kathmandu were found to be 0.73, 68.86, 51.46 and 104.30 mg/kg and their average metal enrichment factors were 2.28, 5.50, 1.92 and 3.17, respectively. The results were also compared against heavy metals status in street dust from various cities/countries around the world. Pollution indices such as contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (CD) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) showed different classes of metal contamination in street dust of Kathmandu indicating traffic emission, automobiles, construction and demolition activities and other anthropogenic activities as the potential sources.

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Author Biographies

Sudarshana Shakya, Bhaktapur Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Bhaktapur, Nepal

Department of Botany

Samikshya Baral, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

Department of Environment Science

Priya Belbase, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

Department of Environment Science

Mohd Nur E Alam Siddique, Global Environment Consultant Ltd., Dhaka, Bangladesh

Department of Analysis & Development

Abd Naser HJ Samoh, Yala Rajbhat University, Yala, Thailand

Department of Chemistry

Banani Das, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Bangladesh

Dhaka Laboratory, Department of Environment

Prem Kumar Shrestha, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

Department of Chemistry

Pawan Raj Shakya, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

Department of Chemistry

Published
2019-06-26
How to Cite
Shakya, S., Baral, S., Belbase, P., Siddique, M. N., Samoh, A. N., Das, B., Shrestha, P., & Shakya, P. (2019). Determination and Contamination Assessment of Heavy Metals in Street Dust from Different Types of Land-Use in Kathmandu District, Nepal. Journal of Institute of Science and Technology, 24(1), 6-18. https://doi.org/10.3126/jist.v24i1.24622
Section
Articles