Infectious sources of Histoplasmosis and molecular techniques for its identification

  • Sudip Bhandari Department of Biotechnology, National College, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Binod Rayamajhee Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Kathmandu Research Institute for Biological Sciences (KRIBS), Lalitpur, Nepal
  • Laxmi Dhungel Department of Biotechnology, National College, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Sami Poudel Department of Biotechnology, National College, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Bhagwati Gaire Department of Biotechnology, National College, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Sunil Shrestha Department of Biotechnology, National College, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Niranjan Parajuli Central Department of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
Keywords: Histoplasmosis, asymptomatic, vulnerable, treatment

Abstract

Histoplasmosis, a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum), acquired from contaminated soil with droppings of chicken or birds and found to be distributed in many parts of the world. The prevalence of histoplasmosis has not well studied in Nepal. The common symptoms of acute and epidemic histoplasmosis include high fever, cough, and asthenia and weight loss. Most of the infections associated with histoplasmosis are asymptomatic. People with compromised immune systems such as HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), cancer, and organ transplant recipients are at risk of developing this disease. In this review, we have summarised the current status of histoplasmosis in Nepal and molecular techniques available for its identification. To date, the significant outbreak is not reported in Nepal, but the risk of infection for the vulnerable population cannot be undermined. Appropriate preventive measures and treatment on time can reduce the burden of this fungal disease. Further, this review is also focused on molecular identification of H. capsulatum. Hence, careful considerations by concerned stakeholders for national surveillance programs and the treatment of patients on time after proper diagnosis is highly recommended.

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Abstract
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Published
2019-12-29
How to Cite
Bhandari, S., Rayamajhee, B., Dhungel, L., Poudel, S., Gaire, B., Shrestha, S., & Parajuli, N. (2019). Infectious sources of Histoplasmosis and molecular techniques for its identification. Nepal Journal of Biotechnology, 7(1), 96-102. https://doi.org/10.3126/njb.v7i1.26949
Section
Review Articles